Can I use abbreviations in footnotes?

Standard Abbreviations. Standard abbreviations may be used in your citations. A list of acceptable, commonly used abbreviations can be found in the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sec.

How do you cite abbreviations?

As with other abbreviations, spell out the name of the group upon first mention in the text and then provide the abbreviation. If the name of the group first appears in the narrative, put the abbreviation, a comma, and the year for the citation in parentheses after it.

How do you use abbreviations in Harvard referencing?

When you cite from the same source again you only write the abbreviation. (OECD 2010, 95). Provide the acronym/abbreviation of the organization in the reference list followed by the full name within parenthesis, for example: UN (United Nations).

Do you italicize shortened titles?

Yes. If you use an acronym in place of an italicized title, italicize the acronym, as shown in the example below: In his recent book, Ammon Shea recounts his experience reading through the Oxford English Dictionary (OED).

How do you put abbreviations in a research paper?

When you use acronyms—formed using the first letter of each word in a phrase—you should write the first occurrence of phrase in full, and place the abbreviation in parentheses immediately after it. Then you can use the acronym throughout the rest of the text.

Can you use abbreviations in APA citations?

According to the American Psychological Association (APA), abbreviations are best used only when they allow for clear communication with the audience. Exceptions: Standard abbreviations like units of measurement and states do not need to be written out.

How do you reference acronyms in a document?

The first time you use the term, put the acronym in parentheses after the full term. Thereafter, you can stick to using the acronym. Note that when introducing an acronym, the full term should only be capitalized if it is a proper noun (e.g. the name of an organization).

Can you use abbreviations in in-text citations Harvard?

Acronyms or initials The acronyms as well as the full corporate name must appear both in-text and in the reference list.

What gets italicized in MLA citations?

Italicize titles if the source is self-contained and independent. Titles of books, plays, films, periodicals, databases, and websites are italicized. Place titles in quotation marks if the source is part of a larger work. Articles, essays, chapters, poems, webpages, songs, and speeches are placed in quotation marks.

How do you shorten a title in a citation?

If the source title or organization name is longer than four words, shorten it to the first word or phrase in the in-text citation, excluding any articles (a, an, and the). The shortened title or organization name should begin with the word the source is alphabetized by in the Works Cited.

What is a bibliography in a research paper?

A bibliography, by definition, is the detailed listing of the books, journals, magazines, or online sources that an author has used in researching and writing their work. It is important to note that it must be a complete list of every source used during the research phase – not just the ones referenced in the text in any styles of writing.

What are the different types of bibliography formats?

There are two main types of bibliography formats: MLA (Modern Language Association) and APA (American Psychological Association). MLA format is typically used by those writing in the liberal arts or humanities community.

How do you reference a book in a bibliography?

The basic information you should cite when referencing a book includes: the author (surname first, followed by their given name or initials), the book title (in italics), the city of publication, the publisher, and date of publication. Note the punctuation in the bibliography example here: