## Can you run a PCA with missing values?

Input to the PCA can be any set of numerical variables, however they should be scaled to each other and traditional PCA will not accept any missing data points. Data points will be scored by how well they fit into a principal component (PC) based upon a measure of variance within the dataset.

### What do you do with missing values in PCA?

Depending on the proportion and the generating mechanism of missing data, different strategies can be envisaged to apply PCA on an incomplete data set. The most common approach is to delete individuals and/or variables containing missing observations and perform standard PCA.

#### Can PCA deal with outliers?

Both the variance and the variance–covariance matrix are known to be sensitive to outliers. Hence, the same conclusion holds for PCA as a whole: it is a nonrobust method. A single bad outlier may cause that principal components are distorted so as to fit the outlier well, leading to bad interpretation of the results.

What is probabilistic PCA?

Probabilistic principal components analysis (PCA) is a dimensionality reduction technique that analyzes data via a lower dimensional latent space (Tipping and Bishop 1999). It is often used when there are missing values in the data or for multidimensional scaling.

How do you deal with values in R?

When you import dataset from other statistical applications the missing values might be coded with a number, for example 99 . In order to let R know that is a missing value you need to recode it. Another useful function in R to deal with missing values is na. omit() which delete incomplete observations.

## What should I do after principal component analysis?

After having the principal components, to compute the percentage of variance (information) accounted for by each component, we divide the eigenvalue of each component by the sum of eigenvalues.

### Should you remove outliers before PCA?

Clustering can also serve as a outlier detection technique, but if you want to identify a few groups of similar points in the dataset, I’d suggest removing the outliers since – again – they can affect the workings of some clustering algorithms (like k-means, which is based on within-cluster variance) and make the …

#### What do outliers do in PCA?

Yet, an applicable solution is to remove obvious outliers from the data first (by setting them NA) and to then estimate the PCA solution on the incomplete data. This is likely to produce accurate results if the number of missing data does not exceed a certain amount, less than 10% should be a good number.

What is Bayesian PCA?

A complete Bayesian framework for principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed. Previous model-based approaches to PCA were often based upon a factor analysis model with isotropic Gaussian noise. In contrast to PCA, these approaches do not impose orthogonality constraints.