Does cold agglutinin affect platelets?
The cold agglutinin appears to have no effect on platelets in vivo, probably because it does not attach at temperatures above 34°C.
Do platelets Agglutinate?
Platelet agglutination due to cold agglutinins causing pseudothrombocytopenia is a rare condition. The platelet agglutination is anticoagulant-independent, usually occurs at 4°C, and is mediated by IgM autoantibodies directed against GP IIb/IIIa.
Can cold weather cause anemia?
Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) can cause red blood cell (RBC) agglutination and extravascular hemolysis in patients exposed to cold temperatures, resulting in anemia. CAD is caused by high levels of circulating cold agglutinins (CAs).
What is platelet agglutination?
Platelet aggregation test. A platelet aggregation test checks how well your platelets clump together to form blood clots. Platelets are a type of blood cell. They help form blood clots by sticking together. A clot is what stops the bleeding when you have a wound.
Why would a patient with a positive cold agglutinin test be tested?
A cold agglutinin test may be used to help detect cold agglutinin disease and determine the cause of a person’s hemolytic anemia.
What triggers platelet aggregation?
Substances such as collagen, ristocetin, arachidonic acid, adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, and thrombin can stimulate platelets and hence induce aggregation. Response to these aggregating agents (known as agonists) provides a diagnostic pattern for different disorders of platelet function.
How can cold agglutinin antibodies affect blood type crossmatching?
An in-line blood warmer should be considered to minimize cold agglutinin binding to transfused red cells. 1, 52 Cold agglutinin antibodies complicate crossmatch because agglutination causes difficulty in detecting blood type and alloantibodies. 52
Can cold agglutinins cause pseudo-thrombocytopenia?
We report a case of pseudo-thrombocytopenia due to cold agglutinins against platelets. These cold agglutinins were the cause for diagnostic confusion and resulted in extensive workup and unnecessary therapeutic precautions.
What causes cold agglutinin hemolytic anemia?
Hemolytic anemia associated with cold agglutinin during chickenpox and a review of the literature. . Citrobacter freundii-induced cold agglutinin hemolysis. . Cold agglutinin disease associated with adenovirus infection after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. .
What is the pathophysiology of cold agglutinin disease?
Postinfectious cold agglutinins are seen with viral and bacterial pathogens, including mycoplasma, 19 Epstein-Barr virus, 20-22 and legionella. Case reports of cold agglutinin hemolysis induced by varicella, 23-25 Citrobacter, 26 and influenza 27, 28 have been described. Polyclonal IgM antibodies are most commonly seen in children.