## How do you calculate induced drag?

The induced drag coefficient Cdi is equal to the square of the lift coefficient Cl divided by the quantity: pi(3.14159) times the aspect ratio AR times an efficiency factor e. The aspect ratio is the square of the span s divided by the wing area A.

### How is ground effect lift calculated?

The lift coefficient, Clo is equal to the 2*pi*a. Likewise, the drag coefficient, Cdo is equal to 1.28*sin(a), where a is the angle of attack. Without developing these equations in depth, one can see that both lift and drag increase with an increase in the angle of attack.

#### Does induced drag increase with lift?

The effect is called induced drag or drag due to lift. The flow around the wing tips of a finite wing create an “induced” angle of attack on the wing near the tips. As the angle increases, the lift coefficient increases and this changes the amount of the induced drag.

**How is lift changed by ground effect?**

Since bringing a wing into ground effect increases lift, it follows that a given angle of attack will reach maximum lift at a lower angle of attack than it would in free air – but also that maximum lift will be less than in free air because of the reduced drag.

**Why does lift cause induced drag?**

Induced Drag is an inevitable consequence of lift and is produced by the passage of an aerofoil (e.g. wing or tailplane) through the air. Air flowing over the top of a wing tends to flow inwards because the decreased pressure over the top surface is less than the pressure outside the wing tip.

## Does induced drag depend on lift distribution?

Lifting line theory shows that the optimum (lowest) induced drag occurs for an elliptic distribution of lift from tip to tip. The efficiency factor e is equal to 1.0 for an elliptic distribution and is some value less than 1.0 for any other lift distribution.

### How lift is measured?

The lift coefficient Cl is equal to the lift L divided by the quantity: density r times half the velocity V squared times the wing area A. The lift coefficient then expresses the ratio of the lift force to the force produced by the dynamic pressure times the area.

#### How do you calculate lift speed?

Lift speed is usually expressed in m/sec (metres per second). Platform Lifts under the Machinery Directive are limited to a maximum speed of 0.15m/sec (150mm per second). In order to calculate the time that the lift will take to complete a single journey you will need to divide the total lift travel by the speed.

The derivation of the equation for the induced drag is fairly tedious and relies on some theoretical ideas which are beyond the scope of the Beginner’s Guide. The induced drag coefficient Cdi is equal to the square of the lift coefficient Cl divided by the quantity: pi (3.14159) times the aspect ratio AR times an efficiency factor e .

**What is induced drag due to lift?**

It is also called “drag due to lift” because it only occurs on finite, lifting wings and the magnitude of the drag depends on the lift of the wing. The derivation of the equation for the induced drag is fairly tedious and relies on some theoretical ideas which are beyond the scope of the Beginner’s Guide.

**How do you calculate the drag coefficient of a plane?**

Cd = Cdo + Cdi The drag coefficient in this equation uses the wing area for the reference area. Otherwise, we could not add it to the square of the lift coefficient, which is also based on the wing area. You can further investigate the effect of induced drag and the other factors affecting drag by using the FoilSim III Java Applet.

## What is induced drag for a three dimensional wing?

For a three dimensional wing, there is an additional component of drag, called induced drag, which will be discussed on this page. For a lifting wing, the air pressure on the top of the wing is lower than the pressure below the wing. Near the tips of the wing, the air is free to move from the region of high pressure into the region of low pressure.