How does intracranial self-stimulation work?
Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is an operant behavioral paradigm in which experimental animals learn to deliver brief electrical pulses into specific regions of their own brains that are considered to be part of the brain’s reward pathways mediating both natural and ICSS reward.
What is ICSS psychology?
Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation.
Which brain region or pathway supports intracranial self-stimulation?
Several brain sites support ICSS, with the lateral hypothalamus, medial forebrain (MFB) bundle, and ventral tegmental area (VTA) among the sites that produce the most vigorous ICSS responding.
What is electrical self-stimulation?
In self-stimulation experiments, animals work to deliver electrical stimulation to their own brains through permanently indwelling electrodes. In the absence of other sources of reward, the reinforcement for self-stimulation behavior must arise from the neuronal activity that is excited by the electrical stimulus.
What is the Mesotelencephalic dopamine system?
The mesotelencephalic dopamine system has three components, the nigrostriatal, mesolimbic, and mesocortical pathways consisting of cell bodies in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area that project to a number of regions including the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, striatum, and prefrontal cortex.
What did Olds and Milner find rats would do when they were allowed to self stimulate the dopamine pathways in their brains?
In the paper, Olds and Milner describe their finding that rats would continually press a lever in return for receiving nothing more than a brief pulse of electrical stimulation in a particular region of the rat’s brain called the septal area.
What did Olds and Milner find when they tested rats to see if they would stimulate their own brains by pressing a lever?
Olds and Milner implanted electrodes in the nucleus accumbens of a rat’s brain. When the rat pressed a lever, it stimulated its own nucleus accumbens. Once the rat discovered the trick, it kept stimulating itself endlessly, without even stopping to eat.
What was the Olds and Milner experiment?
Just over fifty years ago, psychologists James Olds and Peter Milner, working at McGill University in Canada, carried out their pioneering experiments which discovered that rats would repeatedly press levers to receive tiny jolts of current injected through electrodes implanted deep within their brains (Olds and Milner …
What happens when nucleus accumbens is stimulated?
These neurons project to the nucleus accumbens, and when they are activated it results in an increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. The nucleus accumbens is an important component of a major dopaminergic pathway in the brain called the mesolimbic pathway, which is stimulated during rewarding experiences.
What is intracranial self-stimulation?
Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) can be utilized in rodents (rats, mice) to understand how pharmacological or molecular manipulations affect the function of brain reward systems.
How long does ICSS last in rats?
Well-trained rats or mice will engage in ICSS for hours or, if allowed, even days, often to the exclusion of every other behavior. As particularly poignant examples, rats choose access to BSR over access to food 6 or heat in a subfreezing environment 7, despite lethal consequences.
How do you train a rat to use a mouse?
Each time the rat presses the lever or the mouse turns the wheel 1/4 of a rotation, the computer should deliver a 0.5-s train of square-wave cathodal pulses (0.1-ms pulse duration) at a set frequency of 141 Hz ( Fig. 2a ). Following delivery of the stimulation, utilize a 0.5-s time out during which additional responses are not reinforced.
Does methylphenidate reduce cocaine-induced potentiation of brain stimulation reward in rats?
Early developmental exposure to methylphenidate reduces cocaine-induced potentiation of brain stimulation reward in rats. Biol. Psychiatry 57, 120–125 (2005).