How is ammonium nitrate set off?

“Ammonium nitrate is a relatively safe material if stored correctly but can become dangerous and unstable if stored incorrectly. It can detonate if exposed to heat and/or shock, particularly if in a confined space. The risk increases if it is contaminated with e.g. fuel oil, alkalis or organic materials.

Why is HMX a good explosive?

Because of its high molecular weight, it is one of the most potent chemical explosives manufactured, although a number of newer ones, including HNIW and ONC, are more powerful.

What is ammonium nitrate emulsion used for?

Ammonium Nitrate Emulsion (also called EP or Emulsion Phase) is ammonium nitrate dissolved in water and suspended in oil. It is an oxidising agent used to manufacture a range of bulk blasting agents. The oil surface gives emulsion based products improved water resistance.

What is Anfex?

ANFEX is a comparatively cheap, free-running blasting agent which can be detonated effectively when packed tightly in a drill hole. It is hygroscopic and thus cannot yet be used successfully in holes which are either making water or under water.

What triggers ammonium nitrate to explode?

When such a large quantity of compacted ammonium nitrate is exposed to intense heat — if, say, an accidental fire breaks out — it can trigger an explosion. The shock wave following a such a blast can be deadly.

How powerful is HMX?

HMX consists of opaque/transparent crystals with typical crystal sizes ranging from less than 10 microns to more than 1000 microns. Its melting point is 280 °C with a crystal density as high as 1.9 g/cm3. At maximum density its detonation velocity is 9100 m/s with a detonation pressure above 39 GPa.

What is the difference between ANFO and emulsion?

ANFO and emulsion explosives has their respective advantages and disadvantages such as ANFO is not water resistant and emulsion is water resistant.

What is heavy ANFO?

Heavy ANFO is a blend of ANFO and Emulsion, which is made to increase the bulk density of normal ANFO, with the ability to be loaded into partial wet holes. By using these blends you increase the density of ANFO, thereby increasing the energy in the borehole.

What is prime in blasting?

Primer is a unit of cap-sensitive explosive used to initiate other explosives or blasting agents. A primer contains a detonator or other initiating device such as detonating cord. The primer cartridge should be assembled at the work-site.

What is powder factor in blasting?

The POWDER FACTOR is a relationship between how much rock is broken and how much explosive is used to break it. It can serve a variety of purposes, such as an indicator of how hard the rock is, or the cost of the explosives needed, or even as a guide to planning a shot.

What is the relative effectiveness factor of ANNM?

ANNM consists of 60% ammonium nitrate and 40% nitromethane by mass. Methanol is usually added to reduce the sensitivity of the mixture. The relative effectiveness factor of ANNM varies depending on the mix, but does not exceed 1.0 (ANNM+AL = R.E.F. of 1.0-1.1).

What does ANNM mean?

ANNM (or AN/NM ), short for Ammonium Nitrate-NitroMethane is a binary explosive with limited use in various domains, due to it’s relative low stability. ANNM consists of 60% ammonium nitrate and 40% nitromethane by mass.

How does the sensitivity and specificity of a test change?

Sensitivity and specificity, however, can change if the population tested is dramatically different from the population you serve, especially if the spectrum of the disease is different. In more severe disease, we are more likely to be able to make a diagnosis; and thus sensitivity goes up.

What is the sensitivity of SPPIN test?

Remember this as SpPIN: a highly Specific test if Positive, rules IN disease. Similarly, if we take a cutoff of 12 mmHg, almost no glaucoma subject would have an IOP <12 mmHg (high sensitivity). An eye with an IOP <12 mmHg is extremely unlikely to have glaucoma. A highly sensitive test if negative, rules out the disease.