How many canals does maxillary second premolar have?
Maxillary second premolar is generally considered to have one root and one canal [2, 3, 6, 14]. In the present study only 13.8% had one root canal end in one apical foramen (type I, Figure 1).
How many canals does a maxillary first premolar have?
The maxillary first premolar is the most commonly bi- rooted tooth with occasional presentation of three roots system; it is a transitional tooth between incisors and molars. Although it usually has two canals, it may rarely have three and this third canal can easily be missed.
What is an ideal access cavity?
Ideal access cavity assures unobstructed straight-line access to the apical third of the root canal and preserves tooth structure.
What is access in tooth?
The access opening is oval on the lingual surface and should be in the middle third of the tooth, both mesio- distally and incisal-apically. Because of its shape, the clinician must take care to circumferentially file the access opening labially and palatally to shape and clean the canal properly.
How many canals are in the upper premolar?
The maxillary first premolar has variable morphology but is generally considered to have two roots and two canals (Fig.
How many root canals does a premolar have?
The majority of the first lower premolars (89.3%) had one root canal and 10.7% of these teeth had two root canals. Most of the second lower premolars (68.2%) had a single root canal, while the remaining 31.8% had two root canals. None of the mandibular premolars examined had three root canals.
How many roots are there in maxillary premolar?
Tooth organogenesis, morphology and physiology The maxillary first premolar has variable morphology but is generally considered to have two roots and two canals (Fig. 1.58).
Can maxillary first premolar have 1 Canal?
 The canal morphology of the maxillary first premolar teeth has been reported with varying prevalence rates: One canal, 0-26.2%; two canals, 73.3-97%; and three canals, 0.5-9.2%. [9,12] Thus, it is evident that the anatomy of these teeth tends to have racial variations.
How do you open access in maxillary first molar?
When making a maxillary molar access opening, the author suggests using a bur with a small cutting diameter and a short, tapering tip, such as a 330 bur, instead of using a fissure bur, which has a wider, flatter cutting tip, and a longer, nontapered cutting length.
What is Ninja access Endodontics?
Point endodontic access cavities, which are known as ninja cavities , are opened by removing minimum substance to reach root canals . Clark and Khademi  have suggested a preparation technique called a conservative EAC in order to remove minimal tooth tissue.
What is an access opening?
Access opening means any floor opening necessary to allow access to an incomplete level via ladders, stairs, scaffolds or other temporary means of access. [ Petitioners’ language]
What are names of roots in maxillary premolars?
Even though the external and internal morphologies of three-rooted maxillary premolars varies considerably (Beltes et al, 2017), in both first and second maxillary premolars the most common finding is two buccal canals (MB and DB) and one palatal canal (P).