How many cases of VRSA have there been?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recently confirmed the 16th case of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) infection since 2002 in the United States. This is the second confirmed case identified in the United States in 2021.

Does a vancomycin-resistant strain of S. aureus exist?

S. aureus isolates with complete resistance to vancomycin (MIC ≥ 16 µg/mL) are termed vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA)-they were first reported in the U.S. in 2002. Resistance in VRSA is conferred by the vanA gene and operon, which is present on a plasmid.

What percentage of people carry antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus?

Studies show that about one in three (33%) people carry S. aureus bacteria in their nose, usually without any illness. About two in every 100 people carry MRSA. Although many people carry MRSA bacteria in their nose, most do not develop serious MRSA infections.

Who is most affected by VRSA?

Staph infections, including VRSA, occur most frequently among persons in hospitals and health care facilities who have underlying health conditions; previous infections with other drug-resistant organisms; invasive procedures and devices; recent hospitalizations; and recent exposure to Vancomycin and other antibiotics.

How common is VRSA?

The prevalence of VRSA was 1.2% (95% CI 0.7–1.8) among 5043 S. aureus isolates in Asia, 1.1% (95% CI 0.0–2.7) among 179 isolates in Europe, 3.6% (95% CI 0.5–6.6) among 140 isolates in America and 2.5% (95% CI 0.1–4.8) among 493 isolates in Africa.

What percentage of people carry Staphylococcus aureus?

30 percent
Staphylococcus aureus (Staf-lo-coc-cus aw-ree-us) is a bacterium that is commonly carried in the nose and on the skin of healthy people. The bacterium is often referred to as “staph.” It is estimated that 30 percent of the population carries staph on the skin or in the nose.

Why are the vast majority of Staphylococcus aureus isolates penicillin-resistant?

Over 90% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates are penicillin-resistant. Why? They produce β-lactamase. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

How is vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmitted?

VISA and VRSA are types of antibiotic-resistant staph bacteria. Therefore, as with all staph bacteria, spread occurs among people having close physical contact with infected patients or contaminated material, such as bandages.

Is Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to vancomycin?

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (MRSA), resistant to all antibiotics including Vancomycin, has been reported in Japan, USA, Canada and Brazil.

Why is VRSA a public health threat?

Is vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States?

As of June 2002, eight patients with clinical infections caused by vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) have been confirmed in the United States (5,6). This report describes the first documented case of infection caused by vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) (vancomycin MIC >32 µg/mL) in a patient in the United States.

Is vancomycin Heteroresistance associated with mortality in st239 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus blood stream infections?

Vancomycin heteroresistance is associated with reduced mortality in ST239 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus blood stream infections. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21217. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021217.

What is the pathophysiology of vancomycin resistance in MRSA?

Previously, in vitro studies suggested the existence of various mechanisms for vancomycin resistance in MRSA, the main one being the decreased permeability and the increased thickness of the cell wall and hence a decreased availability of vancomycin for intracellular target molecules.

How do you test for vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus?

Brief Report: Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus — New York, 2004. The most accurate form of vancomycin susceptibility testing for staphylococci is a nonautomated MIC method (e.g., broth microdilution, agar dilution, or agar-gradient diffusion) in which the organisms are incubated for a full 24 hours before reading results.