What are Adamantanes used for?

Answer. Amantadine and rimantadine are antiviral drugs in a class of medications known as adamantanes that were once prescribed for influenza treatment or prophylaxis. These medications are active against influenza A viruses, but not influenza B viruses.

What is the mechanism of action of amantadine?

Amantadine is an antiviral agent that has antiparkinsonian activity. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood, but amantadine appears to potentiate CNS dopaminergic responses. It may release dopamine and norepinephrine from storage sites and inhibit the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine.

Can viruses become resistant to antivirals?

Reduced susceptibility detected using laboratory tests can be a sign of potential antiviral drug resistance in clinical settings. Typically, flu virus is called resistant after sufficient evidence was gathered to prove a lack of antiviral effect of a particular antiviral medication in patients infected with such virus.

Is zanamivir a prodrug?

20 Zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu, a prodrug of the active carboxylate) are sialic acid analogues that potently and specifically inhibit influenza A and B neuraminidases by competitively and reversibly interacting with the active enzyme site.

Why is amantadine used in Parkinson disease?

Amantadine is a medication that is useful in treating some symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. It may cause greater amounts of dopamine to be released in the brain. Amantadine can be used by itself to treat people in the early stages of Parkinson’s disease.

Who should not take amantadine?

The risk is higher in people who take at least one other sedating medication and in people who experience sleep disorders. Anyone with a history of epilepsy or another condition that causes seizures should monitor any change in seizure activity while taking amantadine.

What type of inhibitor is amantadine?

Amantadine is a weak antagonist of the NMDA-type glutamate receptor, increases dopamine release, and blocks dopamine reuptake. Amantadine probably does not inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme. Moreover, the drug has many effects in the brain, including release of dopamine and norepinephrine from nerve endings.

Is amantadine an anticholinergic?

Amantadine is a weak, non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor, which increases dopamine release and prevents dopamine reuptake. Although amantadine does not have anticholinergic activity, there may be anticholinergic side effects such as dry mouth, urinary retention, and constipation clinically.

Do antivirals lower your immune system?

The inhibitory effects of antivirals on immune cells may contribute to the immune deterioration observed in patients following prolonged use of the drugs.

Do antivirals work on all viruses?

Bacteria typically reproduce outside of cells, making it easier for medicines to target them. An antibiotic can usually treat many different types of bacterial infections. But the drugs do not affect viruses. Each antiviral only works against a specific virus.

What is Relenza used for?

Zanamivir is used to treat symptoms caused by the flu virus (influenza) if you have had symptoms for 2 days or less. It helps lessen symptoms (such as stuffy nose, cough, sore throat, fever/chills, headache, body aches, tiredness) and shortens the recovery time by about 1 to 2 days.

What is the brand name for zanamivir?

RELENZA® (zanamivir) inhalation powder is indicated for treatment of uncomplicated acute illness due to influenza A and B virus in adults and pediatric patients aged 7 years and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days.

What is the mechanism of action of adamantanes?

The adamantanes, amantadine and rimantadine, act by binding to the M2 proton channel and blocking proton transport across the membrane ( Cady et al., 2010; Pielak & Chou, 2010 ).

What are adamantane antivirals?

Adamantane antivirals. What are Adamantane antivirals? Adamantane antivirals are only active against influenza A virus, an RNA virus, but has no action against influenza B virus. A viral membrane protein, M2, functions as an ion channel at two stages of the viral replication within the host cell.

Can adamantane derivatives be used as inhibitors of p37 major envelope protein reproduction?

Adamantane derivatives as potential inhibitors of p37 major envelope protein and poxvirus reproduction. Design, synthesis and antiviral activity Currently, smallpox, caused by the variola virus belonging to the poxvirus family, has been completely eradicated according to the WHO.

Is amantadine the same as adamantine?

Not to be confused with Adamantine or Adamantane. Amantadine, sold under the brand name Gocovri among others, is a medication used to treat dyskinesia associated with parkinsonism and influenza caused by type A influenzavirus, though its use for the latter is no longer recommended due to widespread drug resistance.