What are examples of exogenous pyrogens?

Examples of exogenous pyrogens include LPS, microbes, microbial components of Gram negative bacteria, fungi, viruses, Gram positive bacteria, and non-microbial components such as drugs and steroids.

Is interleukin-1 an exogenous pyrogen?

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) IL-1 is the main endogenous pyrogen. In 1943, Menkins suggested that leukocytes release a pyrogenic substance, “pyrexin,” that was subsequently detected in the circulation of febrile rabbits. Human leukocytic pyrogen was purified in 1977 and an immunoassay to determine its presence was developed.

Are cytokines pyrogens?

Pyrogenic cytokines review The discovery that several proinflammatory cytokines act as endogenous pyrogens and that other cytokines can act as antipyretic agents provided a link between the immune and the central nervous systems and stimulated the study of the central actions of cytokines.

What are pyrogens?

protein and polysaccharide substances called pyrogens, released either from bacteria or viruses or from destroyed cells of the body, are capable of raising the thermostat and causing a rise in body temperature. Fever is a highly significant indicator of disease.

Is CXCL8 an endogenous pyrogen?

Among the released cytokines that can induce fever, usually called endogenous pyrogens, are interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL1/cytokine-induced neutrophil chemotactic factor-1 (CINC-1), macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, interferon β (IFN-β), IFN-γ.

What is non pyrogenic?

nonpyrogenic. A contrast media used in diagnostic medical imaging that does not produce heat or fever when inserted into the body.

Are cytokines endogenous pyrogens?

Cytokines function as mediators of fever, acting locally within damaged tissues, circulating factors and the brain. The primary endogenous pyrogens. IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α act at each of these sites and interact with nervous and endocrine systems to modify host defence responses.

Is IL-6 a pyrogen?

Interleukin-6 as an endogenous pyrogen: induction of prostaglandin E2 in brain but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Is IFN endogenous pyrogen?

To date, the following cytokines are intrinsically pyrogenic in that they produce a rapid-onset fever by acting directly on the hypothalamus without the requirement for the formation of another cytokine: IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, TNF-β, IFN-α, and IL-6.