What are microbicidal mechanisms?

The host microbicidal mechanisms (a) include the NOX2 (also known as CYBB) NADPH oxidase, the inducible NO synthase (iNOS), iron scavengers and exporters, such as lactoferrin and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1; also known as SLC11A1), plus antimicrobial peptides and proteins that …

What is the mechanism of sepsis?

Sepsis is triggered when microbial products activate Toll-like receptors, causing multiple organ failure and subsequent shock and death. The latest findings found that not only microbial substances but also endogenous molecules could stimulate Toll-like receptors [20]. CD14 is a pattern of recognition receptor.

What are the mechanisms of infection?

Invade (e.g., invasins) target substances, cells, and/or tissues at portals of entry. Evade (e.g., enzymes, toxic molecules) barrier systems and defense mechanisms. Suppress (e.g., enzymes, toxic molecules) innate and adaptive immune responses.

What are the 5 methods of disease transmission?

The transmission of microorganisms can be divided into the following five main routes: direct contact, fomites, aerosol (airborne), oral (ingestion), and vectorborne. Some microorganisms can be transmitted by more than one route.

What are the 5 routes of transmission?

Diseases can spread in many ways

  • Airborne transmission. Airborne transmission occurs when infectious agents are carried by dust suspended in the air.
  • Respiratory (droplet) transmission.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
  • Animal or insect transmission.
  • Food or water transmission.
  • Health care transmission.

How does sepsis cause tissue damage?

As sepsis worsens, blood flow to vital organs, such as your brain, heart and kidneys, becomes impaired. Sepsis may cause abnormal blood clotting that results in small clots or burst blood vessels that damage or destroy tissues.

What is the difference between septic shock and sepsis?

ANSWER: Sepsis is a serious complication of an infection. It often triggers various symptoms, including high fever, elevated heart rate and fast breathing. If sepsis goes unchecked, it can progress to septic shock — a severe condition that occurs when the body’s blood pressure falls and organs shut down.