What are the major complications of HIV infections?

HIV infection weakens your immune system, making you much more likely to develop many infections and certain types of cancers….Complications

  • Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP).
  • Candidiasis (thrush).
  • Tuberculosis (TB).
  • Cytomegalovirus.
  • Cryptococcal meningitis.
  • Toxoplasmosis.

What are metabolic complications of HIV?

Results: People with HIV infection are living longer thanks to the advent of potent antiretroviral therapy. This has led to increased incidence of age-related metabolic complications, including a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis.

What are the complications of long-term antiretroviral therapy?

Long-term morbidity related to antiretroviral therapy includes liver, renal, glucose, and lipid abnormalities, and cardiovascular and bone disease. With some exceptions for lipid management, these morbidities can be managed as in the general population.

What 4 fluids can infect you with HIV?

Body Fluids That Transmit HIV

  • blood,
  • semen (cum),
  • pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum),
  • rectal fluids,
  • vaginal fluids, and.
  • breast milk.

Does antiretroviral drugs cause kidney failure?

Some antiretroviral drugs may concentrate in the kidneys, or inhibit creatinine secretion in the kidneys, leading to damage to the kidney tubules. Inflammation caused by HIV may also lead to kidney damage.

Which antiviral drug causes lipodystrophy as a major adverse effect?

The use of thymidine analogs, especially stavudine and zidovudine, is associated with HIV-associated lipodystrophy.

Which ARV drug causes renal toxicity?

Antiretroviral therapy given in combination with low-dose ritonavir seems to increase the renal toxicity of indinavir [52].

Are antivirals nephrotoxic?

Antiviral drugs cause renal failure through a variety of mechanisms. Direct renal tubular toxicity has been described with a number of new medications with unique effects on epithelial cells of the kidney. These include cidofovir, adefovir dipivoxil, and tenofovir, as well as acyclovir.

What are the signs and symptoms of lipodystrophy?

What are the signs and symptoms of Lipodystrophy?

  • Reduced fat tissue: There may be a notable absence of fat under the skin and this can be associated with the increased prominence of muscles and blood vessels.
  • Skin changes: Lipodystrophy is often associated with increases in insulin production by the pancreas.

What are the two most common adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs?

Antiretroviral HIV Drugs: Side Effects and Adherence

  • Managing side effects.
  • Appetite loss.
  • Lipodystrophy.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Fatigue.
  • High cholesterol.
  • Mood changes.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

Is tenofovir nephrotoxic?

Abstract. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, commonly termed ‘tenofovir’) is the antiretroviral most commonly implicated in antiretroviral-induced nephrotoxicity.

How does TDF cause nephrotoxicity?

Tenofovir nephrotoxicity is characterized by proximal tubular cell injury. This may result in partial or complete Fanconi syndrome, AKI or CKD. Drug withdrawal is the main therapeutic option. This usually results in improvement of clinical manifestations of kidney injury, which may be only partial.