## What is a satellite Look angle?

The coordinates to which an earth station must be pointed to communicate with a satellite are called look angles.

### How do you find the look angle?

latitude of the earth station (lE)=-20 deg Longitude of earth station (fE)=-30 deg, Longitude of sub satellite point fs=+30 deg; height = 35,786 km radiuses of earth = 6378.14 km. Radius of earth = 6378.14 km. Azimuth angle AZ=78.83 deg. Elevation angle EI =18.86 deg.

#### What does look angle mean?

The following two angles of earth station antenna combined together are called as look angles. Azimuth Angle. Elevation Angle.

**What are look angles explain how they are determined?**

Look angles are calculated by considering the elliptical orbit. These angles change in order to track the satellite. Look Angle Determination: The look angles for the ground station antenna are Azimuth and Elevation angles. They are required at the antenna so that it points directly at the satellite.

**What is azimuth angle in satellite communication?**

Azimuth and Elevation are measures used to identify the position of a satellite flying overhead. Azimuth tells you what direction to face and Elevation tells you how high up in the sky to look. Both are measured in degrees. Azimuth varies from 0° to 360°. It starts with North at 0°.

## What is meant by look angles and illustrate them with reference to a geo stationary satellite and the Earth station?

Look angles are required such that the earth station antenna points or “looks at” the satellite directly. From a location on earth, the 2 look angles that are needed are Azimuth and Elevation. Since XTAR satellites are geostationary, these look angles are constant for fixed ground antennas.

### What is meant by look angles and illustrate them with reference to a geo stationary satellite and the earth station?

#### What is azimuth and elevation angle?

**What is meant by azimuth angle?**

The azimuth angle is the compass direction from which the sunlight is coming. At solar noon, the sun is always directly south in the northern hemisphere and directly north in the southern hemisphere. The azimuth angle varies throughout the day as shown in the animation below.

**What is meant by azimuth angle in satellite communication?**

Azimuth tells you what direction to face and Elevation tells you how high up in the sky to look. Both are measured in degrees. Azimuth varies from 0° to 360°.

## How do you find zenith angle?

The zenith angle is the angle between the sun and the vertical. The zenith angle is similar to the elevation angle but it is measured from the vertical rather than from the horizontal, thus making the zenith angle = 90° – elevation.

### How azimuth angle is calculated?

Most noteworthy, one must make use of the following formula for the purpose of azimuth calculation to the west: Z = 360 – d, where “Z” is the azimuth one intends to find, and “d” is the distance in the form of degrees from due north.

#### What are look angles of earth station antenna?

The following two angles of earth station antenna combined together are called as look angles. Generally, the values of these angles change for non-geostationary orbits. Whereas, the values of these angles don’t change for geostationary orbits. Because, the satellites present in geostationary orbits appear stationary with respect to earth.

**How do you calculate the geodetic altitude of a satellite?**

The geodetic azimuth a and “geodetic altitude” v (i.e., geodetic vertical angle) of the satellite can be computed using tan c~ = e/n (7) 119. tan v = u/(e 2 + n2) 1/2 (8) This implies that the components of the topocentric range PS to the satellite in the (e, n, u) local geodetic coordinate system are required.

**How do we calculate the look angles of geostationary orbit?**

We can calculate the look angles of geostationary orbit by using longitude & latitude of earth station and position of satellite orbit. The angle between local horizontal plane and the plane passing through earth station, satellite and center of earth is called as azimuth angle.

## What are the best books on satellite communication?

Fred- erik Ungar Publ. Co., New York, N.Y., 33. Pattan, B. (1993). Satellite systems: principles and technologies. Van Nostrand Rein- hold, New York, N.Y., 359. Pratt, T., and Bostian, C. W. (1986). Satellite communications. John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y., 22-32. Rapp, R. H. (1975).