What is acute renal failure PDF?
Acute renal failure (ARF), characterized by sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, conserve electrolytes, and maintain fluid balance, is a frequent clinical problem, particularly in the intensive care unit, where it is associated with a mortality of between 50% and 80%.
What are the 3 types of acute renal failure?
Acute renal failure (ARF) can be divided into three main types: perennial, renal, and postrenal.
How is acute renal failure diagnosed?
Acute renal failure is diagnosed based on the result of the serum creatinine and urine volume tests. The criteria for diagnosis was established by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), a non-profit organization that oversees and implements clinical practice guidelines for kidney disease.
What is the pathophysiology of acute renal failure?
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the leading cause of nephrology consultation and is associated with high mortality rates. The primary causes of AKI include ischemia, hypoxia or nephrotoxicity. An underlying feature is a rapid decline in GFR usually associated with decreases in renal blood flow.
What is the most common cause of acute kidney failure?
Among the most common reasons are:
- acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
- severe or sudden dehydration.
- toxic kidney injury from poisons or certain medications.
- autoimmune kidney diseases, such as acute nephritic syndrome and interstitial nephritis.
- urinary tract obstruction.
What are the two types of renal failure?
There are two different types of kidney failure – acute and chronic.
What are the complications of acute renal failure?
Complications of acute kidney injury high levels of potassium in the blood – in severe cases, this can lead to muscle weakness, paralysis and heart rhythm problems. fluid in the lungs (pulmonary oedema) acidic blood (metabolic acidosis) – which can cause nausea, vomiting, drowsiness and breathlessness.
What are the stages of acute renal failure?
On one hand, they may present manifestations of the underlying disease (e.g. heart failure, sepsis, systemic vasculitis, thrombotic microangiopathy). If renal function is truly affected the typical course of AKI includes 4 stages: (I) initiation, (II) oligo-anuria, (III) polyuria, and (IV) restitution.
What are the stages of AKI?
AKI has four phases.
- Onset phase: Kidney injury occurs.
- Oliguric (anuric) phase: Urine output decreases from renal tubule damage.
- Diuretic phase: The kidneys try to heal and urine output increases, but tubule scarring and damage occur.
- Recovery phase: Tubular edema resolves and renal function improves.