What is NOx and PM?
Certain harmful air pollutants are emitted directly from vehicles, such as ‘primary’ particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Others, such as ozone and ‘secondary’ PM, form in the atmosphere after emissions of precursor pollutants, including NOX and volatile organic compounds.
What is PM NOx trade off?
It should be emphasized that the concept of a NOx-PM trade-off is based on work with conventional diesel combustion processes that degrade rapidly if attempts are made to lower combustion temperatures beyond certain limits.
What is a NOx code?
NOx Technical Code Technical code on control of emission of Nitrogen oxides from marine diesel engines (MEPC.
What is NOx limit?
The EPA established the statewide NOx budgets using recommendations from OTAG on how to reduce emissions from utilities and other sources of NOx. EPA’s rule is consistent with OTAG’s recommendation for utilities: an emission rate limitation as low as 0.15 lbs/mmBtu or, 85% from sources 1990 emissions rate.
What is PM emissions?
Particulate Matter Emissions. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of small liquid droplets and solid particulates suspended in the air. Particulate matter can originate from natural (e.g., volcanoes, fires, dust storms) or manmade sources (e.g., industrial processes, combustion, vehicle emissions).
How can I reduce NOx emissions in my car?
One solution is the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in order to reduce NOx. Some of the exhaust gases are cooled and fed back into the engine to achieve a combustion with less NOx formation. This results in lower NOx emissions. The reduction of particulate emissions is achieved by high injection pressure.
What does NOx and VOC stand for?
Ground-level ozone is formed when volatile organic compounds (VOCs), also known as hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) interact in the presence of sunlight.
How do you control NOx emissions?
NOx emission can be reduced by primary methods such as retard injection, fuel nozzle modification, change of compression ratio, water direct injection, water emulsification, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and secondary method such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR).
What are the regulation regarding NOx in Reg 13 Annex 6?
NOx Emission Standards The NOx emission limits of Regulation 13 of MARPOL Annex VI apply to each marine diesel engine with a power output of more than 130 kW installed on a ship. A marine diesel engine is defined as any reciprocating internal combustion engine operating on liquid or dual fuel.
How do you reduce NOx?
One way of controlling NOx emissions is to use low-nitrogen fuels. Another is to modify combustion conditions to generate less NOx. Flue gas treatment techniques, such as selective cata- lytic reduction (SCR) processes, can remove NOx.
What causes NOx?
Prompt NOx – Prompt NOx is formed from molecular nitrogen in the air combining with fuel in fuel-rich conditions which exist, to some extent, in all combustion. This nitrogen then oxidizes along with the fuel and becomes NOx during combustion, just like fuel NOx.
What is PM in air quality?
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant that is a concern for people’s health when levels in air are high. PM2.5 are tiny particles in the air that reduce visibility and cause the air to appear hazy when levels are elevated.
What is the difference between pm and NOx emissions?
The emission standards included new, very stringent limits for PM (0.01 g/bhp·hr) and NOx (0.20 g/bhp·hr). The PM emission standard took full effect in 2007. The NO x standard was phased-in for diesel engines between 2007 and 2010.
What is the phase-in period for the NOx limit?
The phase-in was defined on a percent-of-sales basis: 50% from 2007 to 2009 and 100% in 2010 (gasoline engines are subject to these standards based on a phase-in requiring 50% compliance in 2008 and 100% compliance in 2009). In practice, very few engines meeting the 0.20 g/bhp·hr NOx limit actually appeared before 2010.
What is the NOx parameter check method?
As of October 2010 virtually all engines are surveyed using the Parameter Check method, NOx Technical Code 2008 188.8.131.52, whereby the actual duty, rating and NOx critical components, settings and operating values are checked against the given data in the Technical File.
What are the NOx control requirements for marine diesel engine installation?
The NOx control requirements of Annex VI apply to install marine diesel engine of over 130 kW output power other than those used solely for emergency purposes irrespective of the tonnage of the ship onto which such engines are installed. Definitions of ‘installed’ and ‘marine diesel engine’ are given in regulations 2.12 and 2.14 respectively.