What is Pancreastatin?
Pancreastatin is a 49-amino-acid peptide that was first discovered in the porcine pancreas (517). Pancreastatin is found in many cells of the neuroendocrine system and is produced from the proteolytic cleavage of its precursor, chromogranin A (518).
What does a high level of Pancreastatin mean?
Objectives: Serum pancreastatin is a sensitive and specific diagnostic biomarker in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Elevated pancreastatin levels are associated with worse progression-free survival and overall survival in small bowel and pancreatic NETs.
What does elevated chromogranin A mean?
An increased Chromogranin A level in a person with symptoms may indicate the presence of a tumor, but it is not specific for the type of tumor or its location. In order to diagnose the condition, the tumor itself must be located, biopsied, and examined by a pathologist.
What does pancreatic polypeptide hormone do?
Function. Pancreatic polypeptide regulates pancreatic secretion activities by both endocrine and exocrine tissues. It also affects hepatic glycogen levels and gastrointestinal secretions.
Why would a doctor order a chromogranin?
The chromogranin A (CgA) test is used as a tumor marker. It may be ordered alone or in combination with a 5-HIAA test to help diagnose carcinoid tumors. CgA may also be used to detect the presence of other tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells.
What is chromogranin positive?
(KROH-moh-GRA-nin …) A protein found inside neuroendocrine cells, which release chromogranin A and certain hormones into the blood. Chromogranin A may be found in higher than normal amounts in patients with certain neuroendocrine tumors, small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, and other conditions.
Is insulin a pancreatic polypeptide?
The pancreas is a large gland located behind the stomach. One of the functions of the pancreas is to produce two hormones: insulin and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin helps the cells to take in glucose….
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||June 2010|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||June 2010|
What are the two pancreatic hormones?
The main hormones secreted by the endocrine gland in the pancreas are insulin and glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood, and somatostatin, which prevents the release of insulin and glucagon.
What if Chromogranin is positive?
Adrenal system tumors that stain positive for chromogranin A include pheochromocytoma. Lung tumors include small cell cancer. Elevation in serum CgA correlates with the size, extension and the histopathology of the neuroendocrine tumors; it is usually higher in large, metastatic, and well-differentiated tumors.
Is chromogranin A tumor marker?
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a general marker associated with all carcinoid tumors. It is a protein produced by tumor cells and released. Chromogranin A is associated with other hormones and may be involved in their regulation. It may also be associated with cell adhesion in metastatic disease.
Why would my chromogranin be high?
CgA levels can be elevated in a range of health conditions other than neuroendocrine tumors. For example, CgA levels may increase in people with irritable bowel disease, chronic hepatitis, liver failure, inflammatory diseases, and renal failure. Several medications can also cause an elevation in CgA levels.
What is CCK?
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone secreted by the I-cells of the upper small intestine in response to fat, protein, and some nonnutrients, for example, camostat, and a peptide/neurotransmitter secreted by neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems.