What is the concept of vaccination?

What is the concept of vaccination?

Vaccination: The act of introducing a vaccine into the body to produce immunity to a specific disease. Immunization: A process by which a person becomes protected against a disease through vaccination. This term is often used interchangeably with vaccination or inoculation.

What is the basic principle of vaccination?

Vaccination is one of the most effective medical interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases. The main principle of vaccination is the proactive induction of a protective immune response by mimicking the natural interaction of an infectious pathogen (bacteria, viruses, etc.)

Which baby vaccines are most important?

What Vaccines Do Kids Need?

  • Chickenpox (varicella) vaccine.
  • Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine (DTaP)
  • Hepatitis A vaccine (HepA)
  • Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB)
  • Hib vaccine.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.
  • Influenza vaccine.
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR)

What is the history of vaccination?

The practice of immunisation dates back hundreds of years. Buddhist monks drank snake venom to confer immunity to snake bite and variolation (smearing of a skin tear with cowpox to confer immunity to smallpox) was practiced in 17th century China.

What is Ebola full name?

Zaire ebolavirus, more commonly known as Ebola virus (/iˈboʊlə, ɪ-/; EBOV), is one of six known species within the genus Ebolavirus. Four of the six known ebolaviruses, including EBOV, cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals, known as Ebola virus disease (EVD).

Is Ebola extinct?

Unfortunately, some viruses are unlikely to ever go extinct, because we aren’t their only host. In humans, outbreaks of Ebola end all the time. There have been at least 26 across Africa since the virus was discovered in 1976, and these are just the ones that caused enough cases to be picked up by health authorities.

What happens during vaccination?

A vaccine works by training the immune system to recognize and combat pathogens, either viruses or bacteria. To do this, certain molecules from the pathogen must be introduced into the body to trigger an immune response. These molecules are called antigens, and they are present on all viruses and bacteria.

How many vaccines do babies get?

How many vaccines do children get if the schedule is followed? Currently, 16 vaccines – some requiring multiple doses at specific ages and times – are recommended from birth to 18 years old.

How did Ebola start?

Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since then, the virus has been infecting people from time to time, leading to outbreaks in several African countries. Scientists do not know where Ebola virus comes from.

Why do vaccines matter?

By preventing episodes of vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccination can also help avert associated out-of-pocket medical expenses, healthcare provider costs, and losses in wages of patients and caregivers.

What was the first vaccine for?

The smallpox vaccine was the first vaccine to be developed against a contagious disease. In 1796, the British doctor Edward Jenner demonstrated that an infection with the relatively mild cowpox virus conferred immunity against the deadly smallpox virus.

What are the 3 types of injections?

The three main routes are intradermal (ID) injection, subcutaneous (SC) injection and intramuscular (IM) injection. Each type targets a different skin layer: Subcutaneous injections are administered in the fat layer, underneath the skin. Intramuscular injections are delivered into the muscle.

Who discovered the Ebola vaccine?

It was developed by NIAID in collaboration with Okairos, now a division of GlaxoSmithKline. For the trial designated VRC 20, 20 volunteers were recruited by the NIAID in Bethesda, Maryland, while three dose-specific groups of 20 volunteers each were recruited for trial EBL01 by University of Oxford, UK.

Who is most at risk for Ebola?

For most people visiting countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the risk of exposure to the Ebola virus is minimal. People most at risk are those who care for infected people, such as aid workers, or those who handle their blood or body fluid, such as hospital workers, laboratory workers and family members.

What kills Ebola?

Ebola virus also can be killed by many common chemical agents. Chemical agents that will kill the virus include bleach, detergents, solvents, alcohols, ammonia, aldehydes, halogens, peracetic acid, peroxides, phenolics, and quaternary ammonium compounds.

What class of virus is Ebola?

Ebola virus is a class A bioterrorism agent, known to cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fever. The mortality rate can be as high as 90 percent. Because the Ebola virus is so hazardous, it is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent – the level assigned to the most dangerous agents known.

What happens when a vaccine is injected into the body?

Your immune system reacts to the vaccine in a similar way that it would if it were being invaded by the disease — by making antibodies. The antibodies destroy the vaccine germs just as they would the disease germs — like a training exercise. Then they stay in your body, giving you immunity.

How are vaccines done?

Several vaccines are made by taking toxins and inactivating them with a chemical (the toxin, once inactivated, is called a toxoid). By inactivating the toxin, it no longer causes disease. The diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccines are made this way.