What is the difference between RAG1 and RAG2 knockout mice?

Unlike the binding of RAG1 plus RAG2, RAG1 can bind to DNA in the absence of a divalent metal ion and does not require the presence of coding flank sequence. Footprinting of the RAG1-RAG2 complex with 1,10-phenanthroline-copper and dimethyl sulfate protection reveal that both the heptamer and the nonamer are involved.

What is Rag KO mice?

Common Name: Rag1 KO. Mice homozygous for the Rag1tm1Mom mutation produce no mature T cells or B cells. Their phenotype can be described as a “non-leaky” immune deficiency.

What does RAG1 and RAG2 do?

Abstract. The RAG1 and RAG2 proteins initiate V(D)J recombination by introducing double-strand breaks at the border between a recombination signal sequence (RSS) and a coding segment.

What are RAG1 mice?

RAG-1-deficient mice have small lymphoid organs that do not contain mature B and T lymphocytes. The arrest of B and T cell differentiation occurs at an early stage and correlates with the inability to perform V(D)J recombination. The immune system of the RAG-1 mutant mice can be described as that of nonleaky scid mice.

Are NSG mice CD45 1 or CD45 2?

Because leukocytes derived from NSG and donor mice differ in their CD45 allele (recipients express CD45. 1, donors express CD45. 2), cell origins can be readily distinguished by cell-surface staining.

What do RAG enzymes do?

RAG enzymes work as a multi-subunit complex to induce cleavage of a single double stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule between the antigen receptor coding segment and a flanking recombination signal sequence (RSS). They do this in two steps.

What is the 12 23 rule?

The 12/23 rule, which is mediated at the level of RAG-1/2 recognition and cutting4,5, specifies that V(D)J recombination occurs only between a gene segment flanked by a 12-RSS and one flanked by a 23-RSS1.

What is special about a RAG knockout animal?

As such RAG2 knockout mice represent a very valuable research tool used in transplantation experiments, vaccine development and hematopoiesis research. Also, the RAG2 mutation can be combined with other mutations in order to develop further models useful for basic immunology research.

What does NSG mice stand for?

NOD scid gamma mouse
The NSG mouse (NOD scid gamma mouse) is a brand of immunodeficient laboratory mice, developed and marketed by Jackson Laboratory, which carries the strain NOD.