What is the pathophysiology of HHNS?

Pathophysiology. Elevated levels of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone) initiate HHS by stimulating hepatic glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, leading to hyperglycemia, intracellular water depletion, and subsequent osmotic diuresis.

What is a hyperosmolar nonketotic coma?

Hyperosmolar coma (nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome) is a state of extreme hyperglycemia, marked dehydration, serum hyperosmolarity, altered mental status, and absence of ketoacidosis.

What is the mechanism of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state?

HHS. The basic underlying mechanism of HHS is a relative reduction in effective circulating insulin with a concomitant rise in counterregulatory hormones. Unlike patients with DKA, most patients with HHS do not develop significant ketoacidosis.

What causes hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma?

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is a potentially deadly condition that can develop as a result of infection or illness in people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes or when diabetes medications aren’t taken as directed. Some also refer to this as a “diabetic coma.”

How does hyperglycemia cause a coma?

Severely high blood sugar turns your blood thick and syrupy. The excess sugar passes from your blood into your urine, which triggers a filtering process that draws tremendous amounts of fluid from your body. Left untreated, this can lead to life-threatening dehydration and a diabetic coma.

What is the difference between HHS and HHNS?

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) is also known as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). It involves very high blood sugar levels and can be life threatening. HHNS can happen to anyone, but it’s more common in older people who have type 2 diabetes.

What is the difference between HHNS and DKA?

DKA typically evolves within a few hours, whereas HHNS is much slower and occurs over days to weeks, according to 2021 research . The two conditions look similar because of the hyperglycemia component of each condition. Knowing the symptoms of each can help you seek medical care as soon as possible.

How does hyperglycemia cause coma?

What is the difference between DKA and HHNS?

DKA is characterized by ketoacidosis and hyperglycemia, while HHS usually has more severe hyperglycemia but no ketoacidosis (table 1). Each represents an extreme in the spectrum of hyperglycemia. The precipitating factors, clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis of DKA and HHS in adults will be reviewed here.

How does hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic Nonketotic syndrome differ from diabetic ketoacidosis?

What are the causes of non Ketotic hypoglycemia?

Non- ketotic hypoglycemia may be associated with disorders of fructose or galactose metabolism, hyperinsulinism, fatty acid oxidation and GH deficiency. An extensive and overzealous workup for endocrinopathy or inborn error of metabolism is necessary.

What does Nonketotic mean?

Medical Definition of nonketotic : not associated with ketosis nonketotic coma.

Is hyperosmolar and hypertonic the same thing?

Hypertonic vs Hyperosmotic – What’s the difference? is that hypertonic is (of a solution) having a greater osmotic pressure than another while hyperosmotic is hypertonic.

How do you treat hhnk?

Fluids given through a vein (intravenously) to treat dehydration

  • Insulin given through a vein (intravenously) to lower your blood sugar levels
  • Potassium and sometimes sodium phosphate replacement given through a vein (intravenously) to help your cells function correctly
  • What is diabetes with hyperosmolarity?

    Diabetic hyperosmolar (hi-pur-oz-MOE-lur) syndrome is a serious condition caused by extremely high blood sugar levels. The condition most commonly occurs in people with type 2 diabetes. It’s often triggered by illness or infection.

    How to pronounce hyperosmolar?

    hyperosmia pronunciation with meanings, synonyms, antonyms, translations, sentences and more The right way to pronounce the word kyckling in Swedish is? shooc-leeng