What is TLR9?

TLR9 is a receptor for bacterial unmethylated CpG-containing DNA and for host-derived denatured DNA from apoptotic cells [11,236,237,189].

What is TLR9 ligand?

Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes specific unmethylated CpG motifs prevalent in microbial but not vertebrate genomic DNA leading to innate and acquired immune responses. Microbial DNA immunostimulatory effects can be mimicked by synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing these CpG motifs (CpG ODNs).

Where is TLR9?

TLR9 is located in the ER TLR9 localized to a reticular compartment that did not contain Rab5, an early endosome marker, Rab7 or Rab9, late endosome markers, Rab11, a recycling endosome marker, CD63, a lysosome marker, or a commercial Golgi marker (Figure 2 and data not shown).

What are TLR9 agonists?

(1) Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists stimulate innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses. TLR9 agonists induce secretion of interferon-α(IFN-α) from immature plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which may activate natural killer (NK) cell lysis of tumor cells and release tumor antigens (Ags).

What is CpG motif?

Unmethylated cytosine–guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs are potent stimulators of the host immune response. Cellular recognition of CpG motifs occurs via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which normally activates immune responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) indicative of infection.

What is the TLR9 gene?

Toll-like receptor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR9 gene. TLR9 has also been designated as CD289 ( cluster of differentiation 289). It is a member of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family.

How does TLR9 recognize unmethylated DNA?

TLR9 was first identified by its ability to recognize unmethylated 2′-deoxyribo (cytidine-phosphate-guanosine) (CpG) DNA from bacteria, and viral DNA is also recognized by TLR9 (Bauer et al., 2001; Hemmi et al., 2000; Hochrein et al., 2004; Tabeta et al., 2004 ).

What is the difference between TLR7 and TLR9?

TLR9 regulates inflammatory response, while TLR7 promotes inflammatory response. TLR9 has an opposite effect in ENL. TLR9 is expressed at high levels on monocytes of ENL patients, and is positively linked to the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-6, and IL-1β.

What is required for TLR9 to be able to signal?

“Constitutively Bound EGFR-Mediated Tyrosine Phosphorylation of TLR9 Is Required for Its Ability To Signal”. Journal of Immunology. 200 (8): 2809–2818. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1700691.