What is tokenistic participation?

What Is Tokenism? Tokenism is participation “for show” where young people have little or no influence1. Even among well-intentioned agencies, tokenism is common when engaging underrepresented groups —including youth.

What are the eight levels of participation?


  • Manipulation.
  • Therapy.
  • Informing.
  • Consultation.
  • Placation.
  • Partnership.
  • Delegated power.
  • Citizen control.

What are the three classification of levels of participation by Arnstein’s 1969 )?

Arnstein’s typology of citizen participation is presented as a metaphorical “ladder,” with each ascending rung representing increasing levels of citizen agency, control, and power.

What is Arnstein ladder of participation?

Arnstein’s ladder is a model for understanding how the degree of citizen participation in government can affect public perceptions of legitimacy, authority and good governance. It presents different levels of public participation, with the ‘most desirable’ forms of participation found the higher you move up the ladder.

What are the five levels of participation?

The least you can do is tell people what is planned.

  • Consultation. You offer a number of options and listen to the feedback you get.
  • Deciding together.
  • Acting together.
  • Supporting independent community initiatives.

What are the levels of participation?

Sarah White distinguishes four forms of participation: nominal, instrumental, representative and transformative. She reasons that each form has different functions, and argues actors ‘at the top’ (more powerful) and ‘at the grass roots’ (less powerful) have different perceptions of and interests in each form.

What are the three types of participation?

Broadly speaking, there are three types of participation:

  • Conventional participation: Activities that we expect of good citizens.
  • Unconventional participation: Activities that are legal but often considered inappropriate.
  • Illegal participation: activities that break the law.

What is Hart’s ladder of participation?

The Ladder of Children’s Participation Hart’s typology of children’s participation is presented as a metaphorical “ladder,” with each ascending rung representing increasing levels of child agency, control, or power.

What is the highest form of participation?

(4) Decision Participation: It is the highest level of participation where workers are given opportunity to take part in decision making power activities.

What are the four types of public participation?

Classifying participation

  • Citizen Power: Citizen Control, Delegated Power, Partnership.
  • Tokenism: Placation, Consultation, Informing.
  • Non-participation: Therapy, Manipulation.