Why is it difficult to treat viral infections with chemotherapeutic agents?
Specificity against virus replication is the key issue in chemotherapy. Because of the close interaction between virus replication and normal cellular metabolism, it was originally thought too difficult to interrupt the virus replicative cycle without adversely affecting the host cell metabolism.
How is antiretroviral drugs taken?
Antiretroviral drugs Some HIV treatments have been combined into a single pill, known as a fixed dose combination, although these often cost more to prescribe. Usually, people who have just been diagnosed with HIV take between 1 and 4 pills a day.
What are the limitations in making antiviral medicines?
Making anti-viral drugs is more difficult than making anti-bacterial medicines because viruses have very few biochemical mechanisms of their own. They make use of host machinery which replicates. So it is very much difficult to find the targets where these drugs get interfered by not making any harm to the host.
What do you mean by chemotherapeutic agent?
Chemotherapeutic agents, also referred to as antineoplastic agents, are used to directly or indirectly inhibit the uncontrolled growth and proliferation of cancer cells. They are classified according to their mechanism of action and include. alkylating agents. , antimetabolites.
What are the factors to consider before using a chemotherapeutic agent in vivo?
Factors that must be considered in selecting chemotherapeutic agents include limitations of saturability of absorption, patient compliance and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes that occur in older patients.
What are chemotherapeutic agents and antibiotics?
Abstract. In this chapter the word antibiotic refers to both synthetic compounds (antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents) and naturally produced agents (antibiotics). These substances have selective toxicity against many living agents pathogenic to man.
What is the right time to take Arvs?
You should start taking HIV treatment as soon as you’re diagnosed. The advantages of taking HIV treatment: Once your viral load is undetectable, you cannot pass on HIV to partners. (It might take up to six months on treatment to become undetectable.)
What are the limitations in making antiviral medicines 2 marks?
They cannot survive without a host. They rely entirely on the host cell machinery to survive and replicate. So, to kill viruses we need to kill some of the host cells as well. The viruses are mutating continuously, so the vaccines which act once successfully may not be effective next time.
Why is it difficult to prepare antiviral drugs than antibiotics?
It is difficult to make antiviral medicines than making antibiotics because viruses have few biochemical mechanisms of their own. They enter the host cells and use their machinery for their life processes. So, antiviral medicines will work against the host body.
What are the side effects of chemotherapeutic agents?
Common side effects of chemotherapy drugs include:
- Hair loss.
- Loss of appetite.
- Mouth sores.
How is chemotherapy administered?
Many types of chemo are given as an infusion or injection. With chemo infusions, chemotherapy drugs are put into your body through a thin tube called a catheter that’s placed in a vein, artery, body cavity, or body part. In some cases, a chemo drug may be injected quickly with a syringe.
What are the current drugs for antiretroviral therapy?
Antiretroviral Therapy: Current Drugs 1 Abacavir. Abacavir is a carbocyclic nucleoside analog which is converted to its active metabolite… 2 Emtricitabine and Lamivudine. Emtricitabine and lamivudine share similar structure and activities. 3 Tenofovir Disoproxil fumarate (or tenofovir) Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a nucleotide analog,…
When should we initiate antiretroviral therapy for patients with high CD4 counts?
In this study, ART-naive adults (aged >18 years) with CD4 counts >500 cells/mm3were randomized to initiate ART at randomization (early initiation arm) or to wait to initiate ART until their CD4 counts declined to <350 cells/mm3or until they developed a clinical indication for therapy (deferred initiation arm).
What are the most common clinical events associated with antiretroviral therapy?
The most common clinical events reported were TB and malignancies (including both AIDS and non-AIDS malignancies). The majority of clinical events (59%) in the deferred ART arm occurred in participants whose CD4 counts were still above 500 cells/mm3, evidence for a benefit of initiating ART even before CD4 count declines below this threshold.
Who should be trained to handle oral chemotherapeutic agents?
Health care workers involved in the handling of oral chemotherapeutic agents should be trained and competent to treat individuals accidently exposed to chemotherapeutic agents and on the disposal of cytotoxic medications.